This serum contains the quintessential anti-ageing ingredient - retinol. Retinol is a derivative of vitamin A which, in contact with the skin, transforms into retinoic acid, that improves skin texture and collagen synthesis, increases skin hydration and fights free radicals. It also helps to regulate sebum production, which is essential for oily and acne-prone skin. This formula also contains moisturising, soothing, and restorative Aloe Vera as well as Niacinamide and Spirulina Extract - antioxidants that brighten and hydrate the skin, and prevent blemishes. Copper tripeptide, which naturally occurs in skin and descreases with age, helps to minimises the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.